Film Music / 电影音乐

  很多人认为自己不喜欢古典音乐,然而却喜欢听很多电影的背景音乐,甚至喜欢一些电影音乐作曲家成功创作的难度大的音乐风格。自从1892年以来,音乐就用于电影的伴奏中。许多默片的音乐是风笛手即兴创作并进行现场伴奏的,但其它的是一些或现场的,或录制好的管弦音乐。早期的动画电影通常被列为一些经典作品的陪衬。迪斯尼年度动画《幻想曲》(1941年)位居这一传统长河之端。

  随着声音的加入,电影音乐进入了一个黄金阶段。一些迁移欧洲作曲家创作了交响曲中的复杂曲子,像马克斯•斯坦纳、德米特里•迪奥姆金和埃里希•科恩戈尔德。迪奥姆金的《日正当中》(1952年)戏剧性地表明了西方流派和欧洲交响音乐的语言之间的共存。电影音乐吸引了艾伦.科普兰 (他以电影《春晓大地》(1940年)闻名),还吸引了其他一些闻名的作曲家。导演斯派克·李在拍摄高校篮球电影《单挑》时,用了科普兰的音乐风格来配乐。这种音乐风格影响了几代电影音乐作曲家。

  自第二次世界大战之后,电影音乐向着两种方向发展。一些作曲家创作战前原本浪漫的曲子,另外一些作曲家创作有现代派,电子和摇滚加入的音乐。一些作曲家与电影导演的关系笃密。例如,看了阿尔弗雷德•希区柯克的后期电影后,人们会无法想象地紧张,因为要从心理方面去探索伯纳德•赫尔曼制作的曲子。1969年,电影《逍遥骑士》是第一部由流行音乐配乐的电影。到世纪末,电影的配乐给唱片制作打造了很广阔的市场。那些流行的电子音乐产生了自己的电影语言。范吉利斯1981年的《火战车》中的音乐和莫里斯•雅尔1987年的《致命的诱惑》中的音乐为我们提供了不同的范本。

  这些电影音乐的发展从来不会扼杀传统的管弦电影音乐。然而,建立在古典传统上的电影音乐进入了真正的新古典时期,比如有约翰•威廉斯的《大白鲨》电影音乐(1975年)和两年以后的第一部星球大战电影音乐。威廉斯和他的竞争者詹姆斯·霍纳(霍纳是《泰坦尼克号》电影里的音乐作曲人)以及杰瑞·高德史密斯虽不被同时代里其他经典老练的作曲家们所认同,但却能为大众所认可。


Plenty of people who think they don't like classical music nevertheless listen to and enjoy a good deal of it as accompaniment to movies, and even quite difficult musical styles have been successfully employed by film composers. Music has been used to accompany films since at least 1892. Many silent film showings featured live accompaniment improvised by an organist, but others featured live or recorded orchestral scores, and early animated films were often designed to accompany classical compositions. The experimental Disney classic Fantasia (1941) actually stood at the end of a long tradition.

With the advent of sound, the film score entered a golden age. Transplanted European composers such as Max Steiner, Dmitri Tiomkin, and Erich Korngold created complex scores that were symphonic in scope. Tiomkin's score for High Noon (1952) indicated the ironically close symbiosis between the Western genre and European symphonic language. Film music attracted composers such as Aaron Copland (The Red Pony, 1940) who were better known for their work in other genres, and director Spike Lee's college-basketball film He Got Game used Copland's music in its soundtrack and paid homage to the profound influence Copland exerted over several generations of film music composers.

Film music since World War II has proceeded along a dual track, with many composers developing the essentially Romantic musical language of prewar scores while others experimented with modernist, electronic, and rock influences. Some composers became closely associated with the films of certain directors; the later films of Alfred Hitchcock, for example, seem almost inconceivable without the tense, psychologically probing scores of composer Bernard Herrmann. The 1969 film Easy Rider was perhaps the first film whose soundtrack consisted of popular songs, and by the century's end the film soundtrack had become a powerful generator of pop hits. Popular electronics gave birth to their own cinematic language, with the (1981) Vangelis score for Chariots of Fire and Maurice Jarre's Fatal Attraction music (1987) providing diverse examples.

These developments never came close to killing off the traditional orchestrally based film score, however, and film music with roots in the classical tradition may have entered a true neo-classical period with John Williams's scores for Jaws (1975) and the first Star Wars film two years later. Williams and competitors such as James Horner (the composer of the score to the most popular film of all time, Titanic) and Jerry Goldsmith became perhaps better known to the general public than any other classically trained composers of their time.

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